Thursday, September 3, 2020

Speak by Laurie Hale Anderson - Book Review

Talk by Laurie Hale Anderson - Book Review Talk by Laurie Halse Anderson is a various honor winning book, however it is additionally recorded by the American Library Association as one of the best 100 books tested between 2000-2009. Consistently a few books are tested and restricted the country over by people and associations who accept the substance of the books are wrong. In this survey you will study the book Speak, the difficulties it has gotten, and what Laurie Halse Andersonâ and others need to state about the issue of oversight.  Speak: The Story  Melinda Sardino is a multi year old sophomore whose life is significantly and for all time changed the night she goes to a finish of summer party.  At the gathering Melinda is assaulted and calls the police, however doesn’t get the chance to report the wrongdoing. Her companions, thinking she called to bust the gathering, avoid her and she turns into an untouchable. When dynamic, well known, and a decent understudy, Melinda has gotten pulled back and discouraged. She abstains from talking and doesn’t deal with her physical or psychological well-being. Every one of her evaluations begin to slide, aside from her Art evaluation, and she starts to characterize herself by little demonstrations of defiance, for example, declining to give an oral report and playing hooky. Then, Melinda’s attacker, a more established understudy, quietly insults her at each chance. Melinda doesn’t revealâ the subtleties of her experienceâ until one of her previous companions starts to date a similar kid who assaulted Melinda. While trying to caution her companion, Melinda composes an unknown letter and afterward stands up to the young lady and clarifies what truly occurred at the gathering. At first, the previous companion will not trust Melinda and blames her for envy, yet later says a final farewell to the kid. Melinda is gone up against by her rapistâ who blames her for decimating his notoriety. He endeavors to ambush Melinda once more, however this time she finds the ability to talk and shouts boisterously enough to be heard by different understudies who are close by.   Speak: The Controversy and the Censorship  Since its distribution discharge in 1999 Speak has been tested on its substance about assault, rape and self-destructive contemplations. In September of 2010 one Missouri educator needed the book restricted from the Republic School District since he considered the two assault scenes â€Å"soft pornography.† His assault on the book inspired a media tempest of reactions remembering an announcement from the writer herself for which she safeguarded her book. (Source: Laurie Halse Anderson’s Web webpage) The American Library Association recorded Speak as number 60 in the main one hundred books to be restricted or tested somewhere in the range of 2000 and 2009. Anderson knew when she composed this story that it would be a questionable subject, however she is stunned at whatever point she finds out about a test toâ her book. She composes that Speak is about the passionate injury endured by a youngster after a rape and isn't delicate erotic entertainment. (Source: Laurie Halse Andersons Web webpage) Notwithstanding Andersons resistance of her book, her distributing organization, Penguin Young Readers Group, put a full page advertisement in the New York Times to help the writer and her book. Penguin spokeswoman Shanta Newlin expressed, That such a finished book could be tested is disturbing. (Source: Publishers Weekly Web website)  Speak: Laurie Halse Anderson and Censorship  Anderson uncovers in numerous meetings that the thought for Speak went to her in a bad dream. In her bad dream a young lady is crying, however Anderson didn't have the foggiest idea about the explanation until she began to compose. As she composed the voice of Melinda came to fruition andâ began to speak. Anderson felt constrained to reveal to Melindas story. With the achievement of her book (a National Award finalist and a Printz Honor Award) came the reaction of contention and control. Anderson was dazed, however wound up in another situation to take a stand in opposition to control. States Anderson, â€Å"Censoring books that manage troublesome, juvenile issues doesn't ensure anyone. It leaves kids in the murkiness and makes them helpless. Restriction is the offspring of dread and the dad of obliviousness. Our youngsters can't stand to have reality of the world retained from them.† (Source: Banned Books Blog) Anderson gives a part of her site to oversight issues and explicitly addresses the difficulties to her book Speak. She contends with regards to teaching others about rape and records terrifying insights about young ladies who have been assaulted. (Source: Laurie Halse Andersons Web Site) Anderson is effectively engaged with national gatherings that fight oversight and book forbidding, for example, the ABFFE (American Booksellers for Free Expression), the National Coalition Against Censorship, and the Freedom to Read Foundation.  Speak: My Recommendation  Talk is a novel about strengthening and it is a book that each high schooler, particularly teenager young ladies, should peruse. There is an opportunity to be calm and a chance to stand up, and on the issue of rape, a young lady needs to discover the boldness to speak more loudly and request help. This is the hidden message of Speak and the message Laurie Halse Anderson is attempting to pass on to her perusers. It must be clarified that Melindas assault scene is a flashback and there are no realistic subtleties, yet suggestions. The tale is centered around the passionate effect of the demonstration, and not simply the demonstration. By composing Speak and guarding its entitlement to voice an issue, Anderson has opened the entryway for other authorsâ to expound on genuine high schooler issues. In addition to the fact that this books manage a contemporary teenager issue, however its a legitimate proliferation of the adolescent voice. Anderson deftly catches the secondary school understanding and comprehends the adolescent perspective on inner circles and what it feels like to be an untouchable. I wrestled with the age proposals for quite a while in light of the fact that this is such a significant book, that should be read. Its an amazing book for conversation and 12 is an age when young ladies are changing truly and socially. In any case, I understand that on account of the develop content, each multi year old may not be prepared for the book. Thus, I suggest it for a very long time 14-18 and, what's more, for those 12 and multi year olds with the development to deal with the point. The distributers suggested ages for this book is 12 and up. (Speak, 2006. ISBN: 9780142407325)

Wednesday, August 26, 2020

The role of Biofuels Essays

The job of Biofuels Essays The job of Biofuels Essay The job of Biofuels Essay The world is experiencing a progress period between a period of petroleum derivative vitality to a period of perfect and sustainable power source. There is earnest requirement for earth to build up another scope of sustainable power sources which are less carbon serious and which will open up another age for fills. In such a situation, the 21st century will be a transitional period for vitality age and utilization. It is likely that the world is moving towards a more prominent decent variety in essential sources, in which every nation or locale, in accordance with its conditions, will contribute towards the make up f the sustainable power source lattice. In this specific circumstance, biofuels will play a significant and expanding job. They won't fill in for non-renewable energy sources, all things considered, however an enhancement to other sustainable essential wellsprings of vitality, for example, hydro, wind and sun oriented force. Brazil is having a conspicuous situation on the sustainable power source area due a few reasons. Around 75% of Brazilian Electricity is created through sustainable power source. This is fundamentally because of the enormous hydroelectricity foundation introduced in the Country. Yet, not just hydroenergy is unmistakable in Brazil. Brazilian biofuel creation s likewise a case of maintainable vitality age for the world. The good blend of accessible characteristic assets, appropriate soil and climatic conditions, work limit and mechanical capacity puts Brazil on the highest point of the biofuel world market. In any case, its hazardous to believe that biofuels are legitimately connected with supportability. Contingent upon the manner in which they are delivered, they can produce as much harm to the earth as non-renewable energy sources do. The primary issue that is been examined now is alleged LUC (roundabout land use change). Its simple to screen whether a harvest to create iofuels substitutes or not a woods. Notwithstanding, its practically difficult to screen whether another harvest caused roundabout deforestation. An unmistakable model for that is the replacement of dairy cattle for sugarcane creation in Brazil. In a first sight, the sugar stick creation doesnt cause deforestation. Yet, how to screen the new spot where the dairy cattle is been created? This is one of a few issues that are associated with biofuels maintainability and should be additionally checked and talked about. To guarantee the amplification of positive externalities in the biofuels creation, onsideration must be given to three essential standards: the acquaintance of government rules with empower and manage economical creation of biofuels; the idea of vertical development, with best utilization of accessible assets; and the consolation of innovative work of new advances. As far as government motivations, it doesnt fundamental mearns endowments, as USA does with ethanol from corn. New enactment systems need to happen to cultivate the usage of this wellspring of vitality. The United States and the European Union, Tor model, nave estaDllsnea targets Tor tne Iincreased utilize 0T tnese Tuels In tnelr improvement programs (RFS2 and DIRECTIVE 2009/28/EC), consistently connected to manageability rules, which address a portion of the major biofuels maintainability factors, for example, food security, working conditions, local turn of events, social disparity among classes and districts (business and income in open country), natural corruption and ozone depleting substance discharges. Concerning vertical development, it discoursed directly to the idea of access to vitality, which must be comprehended as a social right. In this way, with regards to shortage of common assets, it is important to guarantee a vitality flexibly at low natural expense and sensible costs, for the entire populace. In this circumstance, the biofuel part should be fit for utilizing accessible assets to greatest bit of leeway, as it were, to take a stab at eco-proficiency in order to create more from similar assets. This mearns vertical development, rather than flat extension. This, thusly, calls for more innovation and less waste in the quest for transversal eco-productivity in the biofuels creation cycle. Along these lines, when we consider an industry that is battling regarding carbon outflow and could without much of a stretch be adjusted to change its petroleum derivative utilization to biofuels, this is the AIRLINE business. As of now, this division speaks to 2% of worldwide GHG emanations, yet is required to develop to 3% by 2050. In reality, biofuels utilization on business planes was endorsed in July 2011. From that point forward, a few carriers have tried different things with utilizing of biofuels on their flights. Be that as it may, the difficulties to make this achievement genuine are not just originating from the biofuel creation side. There are still a few shows with respect to the innovation it self. Biodiesel that is put away for significant stretches of time is bound to oxidize, particularly at low temperatures, making it gel. A few added substances improve the chilly climate resistance of biodiesel, however just by a couple of degrees. Nitrile-based elastic materials extend within the sight of fragrant mixes found in traditional oil fuel. Unadulterated biofuels that arent blended in with petrolum and dont contain paraffin-based added substances may make elastic seals and hoses shrivel. Planes makers are beginning to utilize an engineered elastic substitute called Viton for seals and hoses.

Saturday, August 22, 2020

History of Wireless Electricity Research Paper Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 2000 words

History of Wireless Electricity - Research Paper Example At the point when Maxwell introduced a hypothesis about electro-attractive hypothesis it animated the logical condition and logical specialists from everywhere throughout the world began to search for its test verification or confirmation. Actually, the researchers and specialists made certain about that it very well may be endure and accomplished in a domain of sharp expectation, abnormally promising to the reaction of any confirmation to this end. Beyond question, the historical backdrop of science uncovers that thoughts and ideas are unpreserved. Indeed, every new thought and idea creatures improved point of view and comprehension of nature and the earth and because of this improvement our musings and ideas are adjusted and improved (Tesla, 2006; Bomber, 2006; Shinohara, 2010). In reality, in the 1891, Dr. Hertz didn't present another hypothesis or a conclusion. Then again, he just introduced his thoughts in regards to hardware and how it supports to the hypothesis which had just been introduced by some different researchers. In the event that we would have paid heed to it, at that point it was not astonishing that an electric circuit, prepared through an interfered with flow, discharge a wide assortment of room signals, anyway no one else ever attempted to comprehend their character. Along these lines, Dr. Hertz was the primary who really introduced a pragmatic validation that there were transversal signals and waves in the air. In this situation, most of individuals thought about this idea as his colossal accomplishment. In any case, in established truth it very well may be seen that the unceasing estimation of this hypothesis or thought was less in this hypothesis but rather more in the getting the convergence of agents on the activities are being acted in the encompassing methods Hence, it gave the Hertz-wave hypothesis an immense significance throughout the entire existence of remote vitality transmission, taking into account the way that its enchanting authority over the musings, had quieted clever undertaking in the remote vitality part just as held it for more than a quarter century (Tesla, 2006; Bomber, 2006; Shinohara, 2010). Be that as it may, conversely, it doesn't appear to be achievable to permit a lot for the positive and significant outcomes of the compelling inspirations that it has given in various fields. Indeed, concerning the transmission of signs and wires without utilizing wires, the utilization of these radiations of this activity was totally clear. What's more, ordinarily Dr. Hertz was posed the inquiries about the attainability and helpfulness of such sort of transmission model, and he never thought along these lines, anyway at long last he was precise in his expectation. In this situation, probably the most ideal ways that somebody may have foreseen was a method of transmission of signs and correspondence like the heliographic and causes to encounter the equivalent or much more limitations (Tesla, 2006; Bombe r, 2006; Shinohara, 2010). Figure 1Tesla Tower, Image Source: (Mohammed, Ramasamy, and Shanmuganantham, 2010) It was the spring of 1891 when Dr. Nikola Tesla conveyed an introduction utilizing a high recurrence machine at the American Institute of Electrical Engineers (AIEE) at Columbia College. This exhibit really framed the premise of a unique and ideally takeoff. Despite the fact that, around then there had been introduced an enormous number of hypotheses and laws regarding the matter of electrical reverberation, anyway none of the hypothesis really centered around trial and pragmatic verification of these realities. Subsequently, it is accepted that the investigations performed by Dr. Nikola Tesla are accepted to be the main open showing

What’s Gone Wrong with the Third Italy

Msc BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION INTERNATIONAL BUSINESS CONTENT Introduction p. 3 Early glitches of the SMEs inside the modern regions p. 5 Analysis of two of the local bunches in question p. 6 What turned out badly? p. 7 Concluding comments p. 9 References p. 10 Introduction The motivation behind this paper is to decide to which degree the financial zones known as ’Third Italy’ have not figured out how to accomplish the very much wanted status. The nearby advancement model has been introduced as the ideal little scope adaptable industrialist type that has embraced a post-Fordist method of creation (Grancelli, 2007).The financial group alluded to as Third Italy, was established in the post-war period (1950s and 1960s) when the worldwide economy was experiencing difficult situations of recuperation. In the north-east piece of Italy another sort of firms was created. The inquiry might be put why didn’t the other two significant industrialized areas known as First Italy (the mechanical heartland of the North) and the Second Italy (the regressive South) have become the districts of riches and financial growth.The answer lies fundamentally in the social qualities: the neighborhood culture of business enterprise and participation (Boschma, 1998) that somewhat doesn’t apply for other Italian locales. The accompanying figure shows precisely the modern zone of Italy: According to Bagnasco (1977) from a monetary perspective Italy was partitioned into the ’Three Italies’: the North-west, the enormous organizations, was labeled as ’central economy’, the shallow areas of the South observed as ’marginal economy’ and the focal North-eastern locales known as Third Italy-haracterized by the nearness of little firms that are characterized as ’peripheral economy’. In any case, the manner by which the Third Italy district was characterized didn’t conceal the genuine realities; when contrasted wit h the North-west typology, efficiency per laborer and work unit-costs were reasonably lower. Yet, this didn’t incapacitate the focal north-east bunch to have a huge improvement process that is affirmed by: a decrease of agrarian representatives, an expansion in assembling laborers, development in occupant populace, and an upward pattern in Italy’s modern national item (Bianchi, 1998).The â€Å"Third Italy† area, likewise alluded to as Emilia-Romagna, structures a north-eastern gathering of districts that impelled themselves to a place of thriving between the generally well off north-western triangle of Italy and the moderately devastated Mezzagiorno locale south of Rome (Walcott, 2007). Restricted creation habitats use trade arranged specialty specializations to make place-based economies supporting neighborhood firms. Related inhabitants flexibly both low work costs and endogenously aggregated capital.Light mechanical items incorporate nourishments, dress, shoe s, furniture, and metal work for an art based market. Expanding on a materials and cowhide merchandise specialization, that requests fast reactions to a famously flighty design advertise, familial and other privately manufactured trust-based ties empowered nearby star â€Å"Benetton† to turn into a global style retail chain. Information on the nearby market was so finely tuned that contributions were broadly separated even inside a similar city (Walcott, 2007).External economies of spot pushed firmly composed neighborhood districts to amplify returns dependent on obviously characterized sectoral specialization. In one model obviously opposing physical geography, Silicon Valley imitators jumped up far and wide as confident high innovation asylums. A land put aside doesn't a mechanical locale make, notwithstanding (Walcott, 2007). Early glitches of the SMEs inside the modern areas In the mid 1990s the one of the threatening powers against the Italian mechanical groups was the p ost-modern transition.The internationalization of the economy imperils the creating procedure of little scope firms. One great contention is the outside market that gives extended global, multi-item, multi-advertise organizations (Holland, 1987). Regardless of whether the European Union is attempting to assist these organizations by receiving approaches and projects the auxiliary issues are not precisely pointed (Dastoli and Vilella, 1992: 179). Firms some portion of the Italian modern region were running low on breath affirming that the market by its self guideline has propelled an assault to the ’small is beautiful’ saying.Innovation has a key impact in the life of little and medium endeavors (SMEs) from the mechanical bunches. It is seen a decrease in the significance of elements wellsprings of outside economies) that enabled the underlying beginning of the organizations. The since quite a while ago utilized outer sources were beginning to lose hold even with the re quired ecological productivity (Bianchi, 1998). The progressions that must be performed weren’t a stroll in the recreation center. As indicated by Bianchi (1990): the neighborhood entrepreneurs’ social culture and the previous history victories incapacitate the conviction of critical advancement investment.Also, monetary hindrances have precluded little firms to get to the enormous scope innovative work, advertising and so on. (Regini and Sabel, 1989). Besides, two extra issues jumped up from the advancement procedure that should be mulled over: ’product innovation’ in those zone of creation with a profoundly configuration content that takes away the conventional development side instead of the mechanical advancement, in light of the fact that the first incorporates innovativeness, creative mind and taste, factors that are not effortlessly acquired in business-set like this.The other trouble is process development implying that embracing a higher innovati ve work centered framework would both increment efficiency and lessening costs (Bianchi, 1998). (Hadjimicalis, 2006) presents a lot of contentions that could in any case be the genuine ones behind Third Italy’s downturn. ’The absence of consideration regarding the job of state’ suggests the out of date center around various immediate and roundabout protectionist measures and guidelines as in crafted by radicals Stoper (1997) and Scott (1988).The most significant protectionist gauges as the Multi-Fiber Agreement that went in favor for Italy’s sprouting fabricating ventures. The administrative choices have shielded Italy alongside different nations from ’unlimited competition’ in pieces of clothing and materials from the threatening low pursued nations in the Eastern piece of the world. Another administrative mediation was the monetary guideline which comprised the supporting the trade rates for the lira because of the debasements all through the twentieth century and one of them when Euro money was received in 2001.An fascinating certainty is that every one of those creators that bolstered the hypotheses behind Third Italy modern bunches as (Asheim 1999, Becattini 1990, Cooke 1988) haven’t seen the cruel truth of such a business type: poor working conditions and security conditions, longer work hours and low paid working hours. The various explicit attributes of the little scope endeavors from the locale as: adaptability, development and embbededness of little firms (Hadjimichalis, 2006). Another term that was utilized to clarify the achievement of Italian IDs is ’social capital’.It is the hypothetical idea that has been utilized by different creators. A decent point of view is seen through the focal points of Hadjimichalis: ’From people to networks, from firms to families, from participation to rivalry, from working conditions to associations, from trust and correspondence to debasement and from the accomplishment to the disappointment of a spot, all are called social capital’, this clarifying obviously the genuine pattern of firms inside the Italian modern bunches. Examination of two of the local bunches at stakeThe most amazing advancement motions can be laid out in Emilia-Romagna and Veneto territories, where ’industrialisation without breaks’ (Fua,1983) was trailed by an outsider system ’without breaks’ which implies that the districts have picked up the notoriety of soundness creatures inside the wilderness of national turn of events. The Piedmont and Lombardy are likewise genuine models for the relative preferred position of their initial dispatch and the enduring prevalence of their enterprises gave the strong establishments to a solid post-modern progress (Bianchi, 1998).Tuscany, then again, has seriously looked up to the need to rebuild during the 1980s. Its verifiable memory portrays best the counter modern demeanor of its d ecision class. Contrasts between the two regions inside the Third Italy are clear. The Emilia-Romagna’s sort of modern advancement is viewed as one of a kind and profoundly established in the region’s culture and innovative action (Heidenreich, 1996) and when contrasted with Tuscany’s powerlessness to adapt to a model of improvement that appears to be inapplicable to the case.Table 1 underlines the two contrasts in the middle of the two areas portrayed previously. What turned out badly? The mechanical region of Third Italy (IDs) have endured serious changes during the mid 1990s as a result of the interest succumb to Made in Italy items alongside the rise of new lower pursued Eastern Europe organizations and creating nations (Grancelli,2006). The dynamic depreciation of the lira because of the euro presentation significantly affected the upward pattern of Italian exports.The little scope endeavors that have set an a dependable balance into the making of the alleg ed Third Italy district, were essentially privately-owned companies which put all into a system bowl had shaped the main modern region of Italy and a model to follow on by the rising nations. Following a similar thought one might say that the segment decay has begun a procedure of ’social development of the market’ (Bagnasco ;amp; Triglia 1984; Dei Ot

Friday, August 21, 2020


The Dispositional Strategy accept claims that character is the arrangement of suffering attributes inborn to the individual. Every individual varies in the measure of every specific trademark they have; some may have no indications of a specific trademark and meet all the models for another. The characterizing qualities of our way of life impact individuals significantly whether they know about it or not, they impact our amiability with others and the earth we live in. Most of dispositional therapists guarantee that a suffering aura is a changeless, inborn component of character; unique in relation to a state which is a transitory condition. Auras are not simply propensities, in spite of the fact that they characterize what our identity is, they are not the slightest bit simple to characterize. A person’s aura can't be controlled by watching a few demonstrations; their conduct must be steady after some time. At the point when I was doled out an arbitrary flat mate, after only two days I thought she was a forceful, bombastic, average sorority young lady. However I was unable to mark her accurately with a specific demeanor after just 48 hours. I would need to watch her conduct over a course of time, sit tight for it to be steady, and afterward arrange her. My early introduction of her was totally off-base; when I became more acquainted with her I can accurately say she has a sweet, protective, and glad demeanor that I love. What she resembled the initial hardly any days in our condo was only an express, an impermanent condition coming about because of the weariness and worry of moving in. Jackson, 2 Gordon Allport, the author of the advanced Dispositional Strategy, accepted that mental qualities were genuine traits of individuals that served to clarify conduct and not simply portray it. He spent almost his whole vocation inquiring about character and attempting to bode well in the event that it. Allport said that the overwhelming undertaking of â€Å"finding out what the other individual is truly like† is troublesome yet you ought not quit. Allport made it easi... Free Essays on DISPOSITIONAL STRATEGY Free Essays on DISPOSITIONAL STRATEGY The Dispositional Strategy accept claims that character is the arrangement of suffering attributes intrinsic to the individual. Every individual varies in the measure of every specific trademark they have; some may have no indications of a specific trademark and meet all the rules for another. The characterizing attributes of our way of life impact individuals incredibly whether they know about it or not, they impact our amiability with others and the earth we live in. Most of dispositional clinicians guarantee that a suffering manner is a changeless, innate component of character; not the same as a state which is a brief condition. Attitudes are not simply propensities, despite the fact that they characterize what our identity is, they are not the slightest bit simple to characterize. A person’s aura can't be dictated by watching a few demonstrations; their conduct must be steady after some time. At the point when I was relegated an irregular flat mate, after only two days I thought she was a forceful, self important, regular sorority young lady. However I was unable to name her accurately with a specific mien after just 48 hours. I would need to watch her conduct over a course of time, sit tight for it to be steady, and afterward arrange her. My initial introduction of her was totally off-base; when I became acquainted with her I can accurately say she has a sweet, nurturing, and pleased demeanor that I love. What she resembled the initial scarcely any days in our condo was only an express, a transitory condition coming about because of the exhaustion and worry of moving in. Jackson, 2 Gordon Allport, the author of the advanced Dispositional Strategy, accepted that mental qualities were genuine traits of individuals that served to clarify conduct and not simply portray it. He spent almost his whole vocation investigating character and attempting to bode well on the off chance that it. Allport said that the overwhelming assignment of â€Å"finding out what the other individual is truly like† is exceptionally troublesome yet you ought not quit. Allport made it easi...

Tuesday, August 11, 2020

ACA Code of Ethics Essay

ACA Code of Ethics Essay Ethics takes place in our every day-to-day lives connecting both personal and professional parts of it. The question of ethics in general is about making the best possible decisions concerning people, resources and the environment. Ethical choices diminish risk, advance positive results, increase trust, determine long term success and build reputations.   But how are we supposed to make the right choices? How to act in order to comply with ethics code? How to get the proper education on ethics question? Understanding how to properly behave in certain situations is the reason a code of ethics is important. That is why several organizations are educating people on the ethics question and engage them to learn more about it. There are many organizations that work in the direction of educating people on ethics code, provide a lot of information and materials on the topic and establishing classes, workshops and tutorials to help to resolve ethics and morale questions and support the development of the humanity. One of such organization is American Counseling Association. The American Counseling Association is an educational, scientific, and professional organization whose members work in a variety of settings and serve in multiple capacities. ACA members are dedicated to the enhancement of human development throughout the life span. Association members recognize diversity and embrace a cross-cultural approach in support of the worth, dignity, potential, and uniqueness of people within their social and cultural contexts. When it comes to counseling, the “ethics ambassadors” should serve people and establish the professional relationship that empowers diverse individuals, families, and groups to accomplish mental health, wellness, education, and career goals. To Professional values are an important way of living out an ethical commitment. The following are core professional values of the counseling profession: enhancing human development throughout the life span; honoring diversity and embracing a multicultural approach in support of the worth, dignity, potential, and uniqueness of people within their social and cultural contexts; promoting social justice; safeguarding the integrity of the counselorâ€"client relationship; and practicing in a competent and ethical manner. The  ACA Code of Ethics  serves five main purposes: TheCodeenables the association to clarify to current and future members, and to those served by members, the nature of the ethical responsibilities held in common by its members. TheCodehelps support the mission of the association. TheCodeestablishes principles that define ethical behavior and best practices of association members. TheCodeserves as an ethical guide designed to assist members in constructing a professional course of action that best serves those utilizing counseling services and best promotes the values of the counseling profession. TheCodeserves as the basis for processing of ethical complaints and inquiries initiated against members of the association. The ACA Code of Ethics contains eight main sections that address the following areas: Section A: The Counseling Relationship Section B: Confidentiality, Privileged Communication, and Privacy Section C: Professional Responsibility Section D: Relationships With Other Professionals Section E: Evaluation, Assessment, and Interpretation Section F: Supervision, Training, and Teaching Section G: Research and Publication Section H: Resolving Ethical Issues If you are interested in the ethics question, or, perhaps, you are the one who wants to engage more in the topics and learn about counseling  to become one, you might need to visit ACA site and look for additional materials in there to get more details on each section. But if you are writing an essay on the topic, you might use some of the ACA code of ethics citation. Thus, the information will be helpful for you as well. While using the materials form the sources, you need to know how to cite the ACA code of ethics. You must include the ACA Code of Ethics in a reference list at the end of your paper, just as you would with any other source. Here are the steps you should follow while doing it: Step 1. List the authoring organization. Step 2. Add the date of publication in parentheses and followed by a period. For example: (2012). Step 3. Write the title of the code, followed by a period. Step 4. List the city and state of publication, followed by a colon. Step 5. Include the information about the publisher. Because the publisher is the same as the author, you simply need to list the publisher as Author. So the final citation looks like For example, (American Counseling Association, 2012, Section B). To sum up, many of our personal and professional actions and decisions involve ethics. Ethics refers to society’s sense of the right way of living our daily lives.  Individuals will strive for a better environment to live in, they will be responsible for the people and things around them. A good code of ethics will bring out excellence in everyone around and allow the culture to function better as a whole. Now you have to decide for yourself if you want to live an honorable life. In the end, when you look back will you be proud of behaving ethically or will you be ashamed of your words and deeds? No matter how anyone else acts, you have to live with yourself do the right thing, hold yourself to a higher standard, and it will be much easier to do!

Saturday, June 20, 2020

The Question of Suicide in War and Peace and Anna Karenina - Literature Essay Samples

In 1898, Tolstoy wrote in a Letter on Suicide that â€Å"suicide is immoral.† He vehemently condemned the act of it, by qualifying it as unreasonable and wrong. However, in his earlier books, such as War and Peace and Anna Karenina, Tolstoy treats suicide, along with mortality in general, as an extremely important subject that affects many characters. Though Tolstoy may have spoken against suicide in his later work, the author clearly understood its reality and importance in society; he therefore chose to depict it in Anna Karenina with Anna Karenina, Constantine Levin, and Alexei Vronsky, and in War and Peace with Natasha Rostov and Helene Kuragin. Tolstoy does not condemn the suicides as immoral or irrational, but instead, in most instances, portrays the characters in a very sympathetic manner. More importantly, Tolstoy shows us what characteristics make people able to deal with situations that would drive other people to suicide. He depicts suicide as an unfortunate last re sort for those lacking family support and strong religious values. Throughout both of his great novels, Tolstoy uses a sympathetic narrator, who sees both the good and the bad in all of the characters. Suicide is no exception to this approach, and though Tolstoy might have condemned it later on in life, he depicts the important suicidal characters in a very understandable light. Anna’s suicide is surrounded by a feeling of sympathy, as she is finally doing something independently. She has made this choice alone and has no one to guide her or to help her. During the whole suicide scene, she is surrounded by many passersby peering at her: â€Å"they again peered in to her face and shouted something in unnatural voices† (Anna Karenina 883). This description brings the reader closer to Anna, as if the reader is also being peered at; thus, Anna’s feelings are made cathartic and suicide seems like an understandable end to her situation. With Natasha’s attempted suicide, the sympathy emerges in her recovery phase. Tolstoy portrays Natasha through her feelings of guilt and slow forgiveness, and helps the reader understand why suicide might have seemed like a solution. Her failed attempt makes her extremely sick, and it is through this recovery phase that Natasha incites sympathy from the reader. Her character is slowly changing: she goes from being an innocent young girl to a mature, understanding lady, who comprehends the values of marriage and religion. This process also provokes sympathy, since one can see the difficulty she has in forgiving herself. Tolstoy also depicts this theme of understanding through making her husband, Andrei, forgive her on his deathbed. His action amplifies the importance of her past actions, and thus makes suicide seem like an understandable option. Along with his sympathetic portrayals, Tolstoy shows us what might have lead some characters to suicide. A first lens to consider is that of Christianity. Anna’s suicide and Natasha’s attempted suicide are the results of events that can be compared to the fall of Adam and Eve. This comparison can be made since their unfortunate events occur when both characters seemed to have attained a certain degree of satisfaction in their lives. As with Adam and Eve, their decisions, and the consequences that followed them, are extremely negative, and can thus be referred to as fall sequences. In interpretations of Christian narrative, many theologists disagree on whether Adam and Eve’s temptation towards the fruit of â€Å"the tree of knowledge of good and evil† (Genesis 2:9) brought trouble to our world, or actually helped mankind prosper. Jacob Boehme, a sixteenth-century Christian theologian, summarizes one side of the debate by describing the fall as â€Å"horrib le, lamentable and miserable.† Indeed, many believe that it was a complete tragedy for all of mankind. However, others consider the fall as actually â€Å"fortunate.† These theologists see the fall as a blessing and as a step forward towards mankind’s progress. They argue that the fall guarantees the incarnation of God in Christ and the eventual elevation of man to an even greater paradise, and is therefore a good thing. These two different interpretations can be seen in the contrast between the two characters’ fates. Anna and Natasha’s falls, as reinterpretations of the same biblical event, are extremely similar in many aspects. Anna’s fall takes place in Part 1 of Anna Karenina during the ball scene. In this episode, Anna dances with Vronsky, a man whom she was quickly attracted to. However, she is already married to Karenin. Natasha’s fall occurs during Chapter 5 of Part 9 of War and Peace, at the opera. Here, Helene tries to befriend Natasha, and takes her under her wing. She points her towards her brother Anatole and charms her into believing that he is extremely interested in her. Natasha succumbs to their tricks, even though she also is married. Both Annas and Natasha’s falls occur at important events of Russian society. Anna has met Vronsky previously at the train station, but it is at the ball that she is really attracted to him (Annna Karenina 96). Similar ly, Anatole flirts with Natasha at the opera, becoming for the first time a fully tangible love interest. A second component that is similar is the boldness of the suitors. Indeed, Anna asks Vronsky to leave her alone, but instead he follows her to St Petersburg, saying that he will be wherever she is (Annna Karenina 119). Natasha is struck by Anatole’s very direct language and engagement with her. When she confronts him by telling him that she is married, Anatole disregards this reservation, claiming that he cannot control his love and that he is madly in love with her (War and Peace 611). On this same point, both women feel pleased at first at the attention they receive, but that happiness is followed almost immediately by a guilt and a rationalization of their actions. While at the ball, Anna feels a â€Å"joyful light kindled in her eyes† every time Vronsky speaks to her (Annna Karenina 97). Furthermore, â€Å"she seemed to make efforts to restrain these signs of joy, but they appeared on her face of their own accord† (Annna Karenina 97). However, as she is leaving the ball, Anna describes herself as â€Å"wicked,† but justifies her impulses by telling herself that she â€Å"was really not to blame, or only a very little† (Annna Karenina 114). Even as Anna is on the train back, she senses â€Å"the feeling of shame† growing stronger as she thinks about Vronsky, but once again she justifies it by thinking that their interaction had nothing â€Å"differing from those with other acquaintances† (Annna Karenina 618). The same pat tern can be seen in Natasha. At first, she seems â€Å"pleased to see that that [Anatole] was captivated by her and it did not occur to her that there was anything wrong with it† (War and Peace 603). However, not long after, â€Å"she felt all the time that by talking to him she was doing something improper† (War and Peace 603). Her justification for her actions comes after the opera, when she reflects upon what happened to her: â€Å"Nothing! I have done nothing, I didn’t lead him on at all. Nobody will know and I shall never see him again† (War and Peace 605). This rationalization and non self-blame can be seen as a response to vulnerability. Indeed, for both Anna and Natasha, these events occur when each woman is in a very vulnerable position in her life. Anna has not been to a ball in a while, since she now lives in St Petersburg with her husband. She only comes to the ball because Kitty invites her and wishes Anna to be there for her grand entrance in society. As for Natasha, this is the first time she is at the opera, as seen through the external description of the opera as comic and strange. Natasha is not only vulnerable because she has never been in this environment, but also because she has been waiting in the country for her husband, Andrei. All this makes both characters susceptible to being seduced. Another component that is also present in both of the falls is the amplitude of terms associated with the body and with physical pleasure. Anna is wearing â€Å"a low-neck black velvet dress which exposed her full shoulder and bosom (Anna Karenina 95). Similarly, Natasha has her â€Å"bare arms and neck† exposed and notices â€Å"women with gems on their bare flesh† (War and Peace 596, 598). Tolstoys descriptions characterize each fall as something that has nothing romantic to it, but that rather is completely based on physical attractiveness. The last element that connects both of the falls is the influence of a parental figure. This idea is less apparent with Anna, but can still be inferred from her interaction with Vronsky’s mother. The two women meet in the train from St Petersburg to Moscow and bond instantly. The older woman speaks greatly of her son and is very eager for Anna to meet him. As for Natasha, her father accompanies her to the opera and pushes her to interact with Anatole. It is unclear whether he knows what he is getting his daughter into, but he is certainly a major influence on her behavior. Through all of these similarities, the falls of Anna and Natasha resemble one another unmistakably. The difference between the two arises in the consequences. Anna and Natasha’s lives end differently because of the elements surrounding these women. One of these essential components is the presence or not of family. In Anna’s case, it is the absence of family that is to be noted. Indeed, when she goes back to St Petersburg and finds her husband, she â€Å"met his fixed and tired gaze, her heart contracted painfully with a sort of unpleasant sensation, as though she expected to find him looking different. She was particularly struck by the feeling of discontent† (Anna Karenina 124). She is also taken aback by the reality that is her son. Though she misses him a lot while in Moscow, she feels very weirdly about him upon her return home. He is not as she remembered him and she â€Å"had imagined him to be nicer than he actually was† (Anna Karenina 128). Towards the end, her son also claims that he cannot recognize his mother anymore, creating even more of a distance between them. It seems that Anna misses the presen ce of a close family. At first, this is remedied by the new presence of Vronsky in her life. However, this also decreases with time as she feels that, since her looks are being compromised by age, Vronsky must like her less and less. Furthermore, when Anna decides that she is going to commit suicide, she visits her brother Stiva and his wife Dolly, to â€Å"tell her frankly, I am unhappy, I deserve it, it is all my fault, but I am unhappy all the same, please, help me† (Anna Karenina 871). When she gets there, however, Kitty is also there. Vronsky was originally supposed to marry Kitty and she fears that he regrets not having pursued this connection. Anna is scared to face her and, feeling even more threatened and lonely, decides not to tell Dolly anything. Had Kitty not been at Dolly’s house at that moment, Anna probably would have told Dolly everything and her fate might have been different. It is this lack of family communication and this feeling of loneliness that drive her closer to suicide. In contrast, Natasha’s family is essential in helping her recover from her fall. One of the most important characters in this sense is Sonia. Sonia does not want to let the Rostov family be disgraced by Natasha’s actions, and therefore stands by her side till Natasha forgives herself. This action is contrary to the wishes of Natasha, who begs Sonia to leave her alone: â€Å"Go away! Go away!† (War and Peace 628). When Natasha attempts to commit suicide by taking poison, she wakes up in the morning to find Sonia at her bedside, ready to comfort her and help her. Natasha’s mother is also important in her recovery: this older woman very close to her throughout the book and her attitude does not change, even as Natasha feels that she has shamed the family. This stable presence is essential in helping Natasha to feel better, and not feel like she has done something unforgivable. The presence and support of family therefore serves as a factor that helps Natasha to deal with her fall, while the absence of it served in driving Anna to suicide. Another important element to note is the presence of God in one’s life. Dostoevsky, in A Writer’s Diary, wrote that â€Å"suicide went straight to the question of the existence of God† and it seems that Tolstoy was grappling with that same idea. The question of God and religious faith come up at length in both novels, but especially so in questions of death and suicide. In Anna’s case, a lack of spirituality and relation with God push her to commit suicide. Without any familial support, she is left with nothing bigger than life to help her. Anna realizes that she needs God to help her with her situation, but this realization comes too late. It is when she is on the tracks and preparing herself for her fate that â€Å"she tried to get up, to throw herself back, but something huge and implacable struck her on the head and dragged her down on her back. ‘Lord, forgive me everything!’ she cried† (Anna Karenina 884). Had she sought help in Go d earlier, or had she had some religious beliefs throughout her life, she would have potentially been able to save herself, and find a better way to cope with her fall. This saving action of God can be seen in Natasha’s case. Though Natasha already has help coming from her family’s support, it is not until she seeks God and attends church that she really feels like she is getting better. When she goes to church, she has a â€Å"sense of the possibility of correcting her faults, the possibility of a new, clean life, and of happiness† (War and Peace 704). Tolstoy also adds that â€Å"it seemed to her that God heard her prayer† (War and Peace 709). Thus, the presence of God and of a religious belief seems to be another element that can help one recover after a fall. Three other characters in particular help in putting these elements into perspective. These individuals are more complicated cases, but each in his or her own way fits into this argument that family support and religious faith can prevent one from committing suicide. The first of these characters is Helene in War and Peace. It is not explicitly said whether Helene commits suicide or not, but her fate (death by a drug overdose due to an attempted abortion) is linked to her absence of faith and family. Helene is less present than the two major characters mentioned previously, but she is portrayed enough for the two characteristics to appear through her actions and thoughts. Towards the middle of the book, Helene gets married to Pierre, even though she does not particularly like him and is not very attracted to him. Given these inclinations, she cheats on him several times with various people, such as Dolokhov and Boris. She also does not act like what would be considered a â€Å"goodà ¢â‚¬  wife, as she very early on in the marriage tells Pierre that she does not want to have his children. Thus, she does not receive any support from Pierre, who does not show her much affection either. He does challenge Dolokhov to a duel, but he is doing it to prove himself, rather than out of jealousy or love for Helene. Furthermore, Helene is very close to her brothers, but given the potential incest that happened between them, their relationship is extremely ambiguous, and not based on care or protection. Adding to this, none of the members of the family are religious or believe in God. Towards the end of her life, Helene converts to Catholicism, goes to church, and also donates to the church. However, she does not do this for the â€Å"right† reasons, but rather because she hopes that the Pope will annul her union with Pierre, allowing her to remarry. Helene has led a life distant from God and from family values, and her fate in the book reflects that lifestyle. Another helpful character is Levin in Anna Karenina. Though Levin never attempts to commit suicide, he is important to consider as he thinks about suicide and the meaning of life in many instances. Levin is a character who, like Natasha, finds peace and meaning in life through family and spirituality. Levin starts to think about suicide especially towards the end of the novel. Paradoxically, this is when he has everything he has been wanting: a wife, a son, and a happy life on the whole. Though his thoughts are serious, suicide itself is not an actual option because his family is extremely important to him. Indeed, he loves Kitty and, even though they fight a lot, he is deeply thankful for her and is glad to have her in his life. This feeling is amplified when Kitty gives birth to their son. Levin is also in constant search of the meaning of life and his place in the world. Though at first he is not religious and actually considers himself an unbeliever, Levin wonders throughout what is the best way for him to be a good man. He tries a variety of options, such as cultivating or studying, but none seem to work for him. He has many interactions with spirituality, namely at his wedding, at his brother’s death bed, and at the birth of his son, but it is not until the end of the book that Levin comes to terms with it. It is through an old peasant that Levin understands the place and role of God, and that â€Å"we must live for justice, for God† (Anna Karenina 915). Therefore, it seems that his search for spirituality and his discovery of God help him in coming to terms with his life. Through such inquiry, and with the help of family, Levin can deal with issues that could have potentially resulted in suicide. The last character who deals with suicide and its linked issues is Vronsky in Anna Karenina. Vronksy is an interesting character because his situation involves a degree of family support, but in relation with an absence of faith. Vronsky encounters suicide when Anna is giving birth to her second child and has had a dream that she will die in childbirth. During the childbirth, Vronsky encounters Anna’s husband, Karenin, who informs him that he has forgiven Anna. This news, along with the prospect of Anna dying, leads Vronsky to a state of stress and despair, resulting in him pointing and shooting a gun at himself. He simply injures himself and his attempt is quickly moved past. However, even this incident can be linked back to the characteristics of family and faith. In the absence of faith, it seems that Vronsky has no other choice but to attempt to commit suicide. However, since he has the thought of family with him, his actions do not result in what he was trying for. He is mainly committing suicide out of fright of Anna dying, and his love for her has recently been growing stronger. Anna is also giving birth to his daughter. The love he holds for his family seems to be what saves him from death. His absence of faith is not strong enough to balance it in the other direction. He is not religious, but has nothing against faith in particular. He simply has never considered himself a follower of God. These two elements put together lead to a pitiful attempt at suicide, one that only ends up injuring him slightly. Through his characters closeness to death and to questions of life and morality, Tolstoy seeks to understand suicide as a questionable solution to various problems. Though he might have believed later on that suicide was unreasonable and an act against God, Tolstoy depicts it in War and Peace and in Anna Karenina as the result of understandable human failings. He also sets up his characters’ lives to show how the presence of family and of religious belief can help someone deal with problems that would lead others to suicide. Through his narratives, Tolstoy informs the reader of what he believes leads to a good life. Works Cited Boehme, Jacob. Concerning the Three Principles of Divine Essence. Trans. John Sparrow. London: J.M. Watkins, 1910. Print. Dostoevsky, Fyodor. A Writer’s Diary. Trans. Kenneth Lantz. Chicago: Northwestern University Press, 2009. Print Tolstoy, Leo. War and Peace. Trans. Louise and Aylmer Maude. New York: Oxford University Press, 2010. Print. -. Anna Karenina. Trans. David Magarshack. New York: Penguin Group, 2002. Print. Wikisource contributors. â€Å"Tolstoy Letter on Suicide.† Wikisource. Wikisource, 2014. Web.